Paper Title
Comparison Study on Loosening Loads of SEM-Pile

With the increased development in downtown underground space facilities that vertically cross under a railway at a shallow depth, the demand for non-open cut method is increasing. However, most construction sites still adopt the pipe roof method, where medium and large diameter steel pipes are pressed in to form a roof, enabling excavation of the inside space. The super equilibrium method (SEM) has been developed to minimize ground disturbance and loosening load, and uses small diameter pipes of approximately 114 mm instead of conventional medium and large diameter pipes. This small diameter steel pipe is called an SEM pile. After SEM piles are pressed in and the grouting reinforcement is constructed, a crossing structure is pressed in by using a hydraulic jack without ground subsidence or heaving. The SEM pile, which plays the role of timbering, is a fore-poling pile of approximately 5 m length that prevents ground collapse and supports surface load during excavation of toe part. The loosening region should be adequately calculated to estimate the spacing and construction length of the piles and stiffness of members. In this paper, we conducted a comparative analysis of calculations of loosening load that occurs during the press-in of SEM pile to obtain an optimal design of SEM. We analyzed the influence of factors in main theoretical and empirical formulas applied for calculating loosening regions, and carried out FEM analysis to see an appropriate loosening load to the SEM pile. Index terms - Elasto-plastic analysis, Non-open cut tennel, SEM method, SEM pile, Fore poling, Loosening load