Paper Title
Numerical Analysis of Nanoparticle Concentration Effect on Thermo-physical Properties of Nanofluid in a Square Cavity

This work presents numerical studies of the effects of varying nanoparticle concentration on thermophysical properties, and the convective heat transfer in a CuO nano-fluid filled a square cavity. The cavity is bounded by a hot horizontal plate maintained at temperature Tw and moving continuously at velocity Uw. It is also bounded on the left vertical and lower horizontal sides by cold isothermal walls and an adiabatic vertical wall on the right. The cavity was filled with CuO nanofluids as a quenching medium. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations were solved using a simulation program developed in C++ programming language based on the finite difference method (FDM) to investigate the thermo-physical properties and heat characteristics of CuO nanofluid in a two-dimensional square cavity under varying nanoparticle concentration. The study was carried out for nanofluid at various nanoparticle concentrations in the range 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.9 to characterize the nature of the property's patterns and energy distribution. The results show that nanoparticle volume concentration has a significant impact on heat distribution, and the Nanofluid density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity increase with an increase in volume concentration of nanoparticle, while specific heat capacity of nanofluid reduces with increase in volume fraction concentration. This work enhances the preparation of nanofluid as the thermo-physical properties of the fluid, determines its application. The results would be useful as baseline data for manufacturing and material processing industries involved with wire drawing, continuous rolling and glass fibre productions. Keywords - Cavity, Nanofluid, Natural Convection, Heat Transfer Enhancement.