Paper Title
Study of Effect of Impact Angle and Impact Location on Head Injury For Child Pillion Passengers in Motorcycle-To-Car Crash Using Child Head-To-Car Finite Element Simulations

This paperoutlines the development and validation of Finite Element (FE) model for child head-to-car impact which simulates the MC-to-car crash scenario and further explores the effect of impact angle and impact location on head injury for child pillion passengers when they are thrown forward after crash and hit the opposing vehicle (OV). The FE model for child head-to car is validated based on motorcycle crash test experiment by comparison of the kinematics, resultant accelerations and HIC values between experiment and simulation. The effect of head impact angle on head injury is studied at three impact angles covering the frontal part of child dummy head and the effect of impact location is studied at four location on OV (center of hood, front end of hood, windscreen and at A-pillar) by employing the developed FE model. It was seen that the FE model developed for child dummy head-to-car impact simulating the case of MC-to-car crash had good agreement with experimental data. In case of effect of head impact angle, it was found that, with the increase of impact angle the head injury was decreased, suggesting that the frontal part of child head is more vulnerable to severe injuries rather than upper part of child head. From the effect of impact location results, it was seen that A-pillar and windshield are more fatal locations for injuries and also the front edge of hood is more vulnerable for child head impact in terms of head injury than center of hood provided the head did not hit the engine components due to excessive deformation. Index Terms:Child Pillion Passenger Safety, Finite Element Simulation, Head Injury Criteria, Impact angle, Impact Location, Motorcycle-to-car crash