Paper Title
Impact Of Surface Orientation On Regression Rates In Smoldering Combustion

The effect of fuel surface orientation on regression rates in smoldering combustion is endeavored. The work comprehensively details the role of fuel position in relation to the rate at which it burns and is an attempt to fundamentally understand the relation between them. An experimental setup was raised and all experimentations were carried out for opposed and concurrent flow spreads at various orientations in quiescent environment of normal gravity. To corroborate the results, the experiments were performed on two different fuels viz., a standard cigarette stick and incense stick for same set of conditions. Results shows that the regression rates increase non-monotonically with orientation standing maximum at 45 degrees and qualitatively similar trends were observed for different fuels. Concurrent flow spread results in higher spread rates owing to high heat transfer due to gravity induced buoyant flows that sets up localized velocity and temperature fields.