Paper Title
The Causes of the Oil Spill Incidents: A Review Paper

An International Maritime Organization (IMO, 2011, 2012) has mandate a principal concerned with maritime safety, adopted a wide range of measurement in preventing and controling pollution caused by ship and mitigate the effects of any damage occurred as a result of maritime operations and accidents. In addition, an International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (ORPC) 1990, provides a framework for facilitating international cooperation and mutual assistance in responding to major oil pollution incidents. This paper reviews the sources contributing to the oil spill incidents which focuses on three causes such as human, technical or natural errors. The review findings were taken based from several randomly selected academic publications from journals, articles, proceedings, and other online related references. It is vital to determine the significant contributing causes towards the oil spill indidents. Once the oil spill incidents happened, it produced serious long term effects on environmental, social, economics, marine ecosystems, coastal communities and human effects. The finding revealed most of the oil spill incidents happened were caused by human errors. Thus, it is very important and vital to prevent the human errors which lead to the most of the pollution on the marine environment. Keywords - Oil Spill Incidents, Marine Pollution, Human Errors